domingo, 28 de octubre de 2012

¿ Cómo son los trajes de la sierra del Perú?


 (*) Nuestro agradecimiento especial a Siddharta Svenson, amigo de esta página y entusiasta suscriptor de nuestra comunidad en facebook, quien nos proporcionó las fotos que acompañan este artículo.
La sierra del Perú es especialmente pródiga en manifestaciones folklóricas. Se podría decir que cada localidad importante es identificable por una festividad, baile y vestuario característico. En esta oportunidad no hablaremos de un traje típico en particular, sino más bien, intentaremos encontrar elementos comunes que emparenten esta enorme diversidad.
 
 

Debemos tener claro que nuestro folklore es fruto del mestizaje.  Con la llegada de los conquistadores españoles, nuestros pueblos indígenas recibieron de la cultura occidental una serie de “aportes” que no tardaron en asimilar, adaptándolos sin sacrificar la esencia de sus costumbres ancestrales.

Así entonces, los españoles, en su afán de afianzar la conquista con un proceso de occidentalización de las costumbres autóctonas,  impusieron en el nuevo mundo el uso de la falda, la chaqueta, la blusa  y el sombrero; en detrimento de las sencillas túnicas, anacos o acsus que caracterizaban a las mujeres del imperio inca.


Si bien el cambio debió generar una natural resistencia al nuevo vestuario (inusualmente abrigado, mucho más rígido, pesado y complicado de colocar), éste fue progresivamente aceptado e incorporado a la cultura indígena, no sin antes experimentar ciertos cambios:

-Las prendas ganaron en colorido, rescatando los tonos encendidos de los mantos y túnicas precolombinas.


-Se enriquecieron los bordados y tejidos, convirtiendo a cada prenda en una verdadera obra de arte llena de complejos detalles y aplicaciones favorecidos por el uso de nuevos y más sofisticados materiales (lana de alpaca y vicuña). El esmero en la confección está presente no solamente en las prendas exteriores, sino también en los accesorios e incluso en la ropa interior.  


-Se agregaron hermosos mantos y un volumen mayor a las faldas (superponiéndolas una debajo de la otra hasta llegar fácilmente a la decena); buscando con ello que el cuerpo vestido de la mujer se convierta en un templo inaccesible que complazca al puritanismo católico del conquistador, pero al mismo tiempo insinúe la forma triangular de las divinidades femeninas precolombinas cuya adoración mantenían clandestinamente.


-Si bien la falda amplió considerablemente su volumen, también redujo ostensiblemente el largo. Si en Europa cubría hasta los pies, en el Nuevo Mundo se acortó en algunos casos hasta la altura de las rodillas, facilitando con ello el desarrollo de las faenas domésticas y brindando al mismo tiempo un toque de velada sensualidad.


-Se eliminó el uso de calzas, zapatos y chanclos; quedando los pies descalzos o con sencillas ojotas. Es importante precisar que el uso de otra clase de calzado (botas, zapatos) que apreciamos actualmente en algunos trajes fue introducido hace pocas décadas, por asimilación de la moda contemporánea.



Sin que pretendamos desmerecer las particularidades locales de cada vestimenta,  podemos afirmar que estos elementos determinan la estructura básica de cada traje típico de la sierra peruana, incluso en la actualidad.

En efecto, salvo contadas excepciones (como el traje de saya, estilizado y reducido a su mínima expresión; o el traje del tinku, que mantiene el uso de túnica), el traje típico de la sierra puede describirse como un conjunto de blusa y/o chaqueta de manga larga más pollera de amplio volumen y largo mediano; complementado por un manto que puede llevarse amarrado alrededor del pecho, sobre los hombros o a modo de velo;  y un sombrero que cumple funciones decorativas antes que protectoras.   

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